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Science & Tech – Part 1 (Ensure PT)


NASA’s Orion Spacecraft

  1. Designed to carry astronauts to deep space destinations like Moon and Mars.
  2. NASA has named the Orion spacecraft after the largest constellation in the night sky.
  3. Designed to cater to NASA’s deep space exploration programs.

China to send Mini-Ecosystems to the Moon

  1.  China is planning to send mini-ecosystems comprising of potato seeds and silkworm eggs to the Moon.
  2. According to the researchers, the silkworms will hatch and create carbon dioxide, while the potato plants will generate oxygen.
  3. The main objective behind this mission is to prepare for future moon landings and possible human inhabitants.

ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission completes 1000 Earth Days in Orbit

  1. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched into space on November 5, 2013, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25.
  2. It was indigenously designed, built and launched by ISRO
  3. Five instruments are Lyman-Alpha Photometer (LAP), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA), Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS) and Mars Colour Camera (MCC)
  4. India created a space history by becoming the first nation in the world to successfully launch an interplanetary mission to Mars in a maiden attempt.
  5. ISRO also become first Asian and fourth space agency in the world to reach Mars orbit after the Roscosmos of Russia, NASA and European Space Agency.

Mobile App “Celebrating Yoga”

Minister for Science & Technology has launched “Celebrating Yoga”. The Mobile App has been developed by Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology on the occasion of International  Yoga Day 2017.

The aim of the app is to popularise Yoga and encourage people to practice yoga for a scientifically healthy living

The app will be connected with Google Map where shared information can be viewed by the app users.The information gathered by the mobile app will be shared with the  Ministry of AYUSH to complement their efforts.

SATYAM:-

In 2015, the Department of Science & Technology (DST) had also launched a research programme “Science and Technology of Yoga and Meditation (SATYAM)” under its Cognitive Science Research Initiative (CSRI).


 

NASA’s Kepler Telescope finds 10 Earth-Like Planets

NASA’s Kepler Telescope has identified 10 Earth-like planets outside the solar system that are expected to host life due to their right size and temperature. This finding is a boost  in the hope for life elsewhere.

After an extensive search carried out for four years, NASA’s Kepler space telescope has detected a total of 49 planets in the Goldilocks zone. This number is set to increase as Kepler telescope has so far looked only in one quarter of one percent of a galaxy that holds about 200 billion of stars.

With the launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) by NASA in 2018, chances of studying planets and detecting a familiar atmosphere will increase manifold. JWST will succeed the Hubble space telescope.

Exoplanet: It is a planet that does not orbit the Sun and instead orbits a different star, stellar remnant, or brown dwarf. It is also termed as extrasolar planet.

Goldilocks Zone refers to a habitable zone where the temperature is neither too high nor too low.

 


Ransomware Cyber Attack 

A global cyberattack has crippled nearly hundred countries, including India. A cyber gang called Shadow Brokers, which is a mysterious organisation is held responsible for this massive cyberattack. The organisation has carried out the attack by stealing a hacking tool called ‘Eternal Blue’ from the National Security Agency (NSA), America’s powerful military intelligence unit. The hacking tool Eternal Blue gives unprecedented access to all computers using Microsoft Windows. It was developed by NSA to gain access to computers used by terrorists and enemy states.

Ransomware is a type of malicious software when infected restricts the user access until a ransom is paid to unlock it.

Hackers have spread ransomware known as WannaCry, WanaCrypt0r 2.0, WannaCry and WCry, often through emails. The files in the infected computers gets locked up in such a way that the user cannot access them anymore. It then demands payment in cryptocurrency Bitcoin to retrieve the locked files.


SIMBEX-17

Bilateral Exercise between Indian & Republic Of Singapore Navy


Scientists at IIT Delhi Develops Cheapest Respiratory Filter

Scientists at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi have developed the device ‘Nasofilters’ which is capable of restricting up to 95% of dust and air pollutants.

The researchers involved in the project was recently awarded with the “National Startups Award” by President Pranab Mukherjee.

Salient Features

Gives protection against the finest particulate pollutants especially the PM2.5 concentration.

It offers protection for at least eight hours and therefore helps in reducing the risk of respiratory diseases.

The filter is capable of getting struck with the user’s nasal orifice and would prevent the entry of foreign particulate matter like PM2.5 particles, bacteria and pollen allergens.

Background

According to a new study of global air pollution issued jointly by Health Effects Institute, a Boston research institute, India’s rapidly worsening air pollution has surpassed that of China’s to become the deadliest in the world. About 1.1 million people die prematurely each year in India which is an alarming increase of nearly 50% of premature deaths between 1990 and 2015 period.

Particulate Matters are fine particles, less than fraction of the width of a human hair. These particles are released from vehicles, particularly those with diesel engines, industries, as well as from natural sources. They enter the bloodstream through the lungs, and increases the risk of stroke, heart failure and cardiac disease. in addition it also results in severe respiratory problems, like pneumonia and asthma.


Scientists discover First Natural Human Antibodies against Ebola Virus

A team of scientists from the United States have discovered a possible cure for Ebola viruses. They have discovered the first natural human antibodies that are capable of neutralizing and protecting animals against all three major disease-causing ebola viruses. The findings could lead to the discovery of first effective ebolavirus therapies and vaccines.

Background

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. It was first identified in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo in a village near the Ebola River, from which it takes its name. It is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats are natural host of this virus. It spreads through contact with body fluids of inflected persons such as blood, urine and saliva.

Symptoms faced by people who have contracted the Ebola virus include high fever, bleeding and central nervous system damage. In 2014, Ebola virus had erupted periodically mainly across west and east Africa mainly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. It was the deadly outbreak of the virus in the history that had killed 11,000 people.


 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

June 22, 2017

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