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1.11-Distribution of key natural resources (General Studies I)

Syllabus-Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub‐continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

1. Aquaculture:

  1. Nutrition: Fish is ‘nature’s superfood’, an important source of proteins and healthy fats, a unique source of essential nutrients, including long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium.
  2. Consumption of fish is the key to good health. It is especially crucial for women during pregnancy and lactation. The nutrients in fish promote optimal brain development, regulate the immune system and build healthy bones.
  3. Food Security :-
    1. Around 200 million people globally rely on fisheries either directly or indirectly for their livelihoods.
    2. Aquaponics is receiving increasing attention as a viable method for providing fish protein and profits to families and small communities
    3. The need to build resilience along the seafood-value chain in view of climate change and extreme weather events.
Potential in India:
  1. India achieved 11–fold increase in fish production in just six decades, i.e. from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 9.6 million tonnes during 2012–13.
  2. Annual growth rate of over 4.5 percent over the years has placed the country on the forefront of global fish production, only after China.
  3. Dependence of over 14.5 million people on fisheries activities for their livelihood.
  4. Foreign exchange earnings to the tune of US$ 3.51 billion (2012–13) from fish and fisheries products.
  5. The share of inland fisheries and aquaculture has gone up from 46 percent in the 1980s to over 85 percent in recent years in total fish production.
  6. Huge coast line and Inland water as India has a huge network of rivers, streams,estuaries backwater etc.
  7. The aquaculture sector can offer gainful employment to rural dwellers, and particularly rural youth, who could work in the sector rather than migrate to urban areas or abroad in search of work.
  8. Technological advancement: This can help to breed various species, fisheries agriculture pattern.
  9. Food Processing Industry: India is focusing to boost it’s food processing industry, it can provide backward and forward linkages for fisheries sector.
  10. India also have some unique species of fisheries like Prawns, which are in high demand in global market.
  11. It will help a great deal in reducing gender discrimination as women are heavily involved in this sector

2. Agglomeration of manufacturing industries in India:

Factors responsible for the agglomeration of manufacturing industries in India :

The most dominant factor of industrial location is the least cost.

  1. Cost of obtaining raw materials at site: Manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the raw materials of production are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.
  2. Cost of production at site: These are influenced by availability of labour, capital, power, etc. Thus industrial location is influenced by the costs of availability of these factors of production.
  3. Cost of distribution of production: The distance of industry from market influence the transportation costs.

Raw materials:

  1. Finished product of one industry may well be the raw material of another. For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry.


  1. Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional sources of power.
  2. The iron and steel industry which mainly depends on large quantities of coking coal as source of power are frequently tied to coal fields.


  1. Labour supply is important in two respects viz. workers in large numbers are often required and people with skill or technical expertise are needed.


  1. The development of railways in India, connecting the port towns with hinterland determined the location of many industries around Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.


  1. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates.


  1. Many industries are established near rivers, canals and lakes.
  2. Iron and steel industry, textile industries and chemical industries require large quantities of water, for their proper functioning.


  1. Sites, generally, should be flat and well served by adequate transport facilities.


  1. The extreme type of climate of north-west India hinders the development of industries.
  2. The moderate climate of west coastal area is quite congenial to the development of industries.
  3. About 24 per cent of India’s modem industries and 30 per cent of India’s industrial labour is concentrated in Maharashtra-Gujarat region alone.


  1. Capitalists are available in urban centres.
  2. Big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai are big industrial centres, because the big capitalists live in these cities

Government Policy:

  1. Government activity in planning the future distribution of industries, for reducing regional disparities, elimination of pollution of air and water and for avoiding their heavy clustering in big cities, has become no less an important locational factor.

Banking and Insurance Facilities:

  1. Areas with better banking facilities are better suited to the establishment of industries.

Environmental Clearance

Labor unions and Local People

Trade links


June 24, 2017

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